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Контрольная работа по английскому языку (Вариант 4)



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Контрольная работа № 1 Вариант 1 № 1 Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на а) существительные во множественном числе и б) существительные в притяжательной форме 1 The data speak in favour of this theory. 2 One’s left hand does not know what one’s right hand is doing. 3 As to the scientists’ work, it is of great importance. 4 After a week’s rest the rabbit may be given a second dose of vitamins. 5 There are some methods at one’s disposal of reaching this goal. 6 In spite of some objections this engineer’s design was accepted. 7 It was implicit owing to comments about using the computer’s power. 8 They attempt to continually enlarge the sphere of the program’s local simplicity. 9 Pr. Beale’s theoretical work has always been firmly grounded in practice. 10 Of all the values Pauling’s estimates of the radii of these volumes are of utmost importance. 11 An acceptable level for the machine’s performance can be defined as the machine’s own characteristic.

№2. Переведите предложения, используя правило ряда

1 Argument force rather than force argument should dominate. 2 The class of regulators can be thought of as composed of three parts: a parameter estimator, a linear controller and a block which determines the controller parameters. 3 They have used the conventional crystal growth method. 4 Here frequency dependent rate equations are applicable. 5 The approach is used for time and money saving purposes. 6 A cell growth rate increase has been observed. 7 They have constructed a gas-filled high pressure cell. 8 Such integrity has been achieved by a combination of manual and computer based controls. 9 An integrated absorption area value of all methyl groups is reasonably good. 10 Straumanis has built an elaborate temperature-control system. 11 They have used the temperature controlled system.

№3. Переведите предложения, определяя форму сказуемого (время, вид, залог)

1 All these examples will be reduced to the following. 2 The amount of input information will gradually be being reduced throughout the whole process. 3 Similar remarks apply to Barnard’s study of curvature. 4 The cross-sections for both of these processes increase as the energy of the electrons decreases. 5 The resulting problem is reduced to three degrees of freedom. 6 Philosophical puzzlement about this phenomenon was much reduced thanks to his investigations. 7 The study of polyhedra held a central place in Greek geometry. 8 This differential equation holds true for a number of physical processes. 9 Some of the algebraic laws do hold for the situation under consideration.

№ 4 Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание глаголу to be

1 In any case the usefulness of these correlations is questionable. 2 The amino group is in the β-position. 3 Work is under way to settle this point. 4 A simpler method is to render the aqueous solution more acidic. 5 Every fact is a process rather than a static entity. 6 The plus or minus sign is to be chosen in each of these equations. 7 Further we are to give up these assumptions. 8 A different method of procedure would be to list all the known geometric facts. 9 Symbolism is not only of practical use but of great interest. 10 We are trying to do our best. 11 We shall be surprised if it occurs at all.

№ 5 Переведите предложения, выделяя сказуемое в страдательном залоге

1 Mathematics is loved by many, disliked by a few, admired and respected by all. 2 Facts alone are wanted in life (Ch. Dickens). 3 These parts are made of steel throughout. 4 At this point the material under examination is fed. 5 The treatment of this theory was modified. 6 The possibilities under consideration will be discussed in detail. 7 The initiative was supported by everybody. 8 Thus, the upper cut number of the node В is decreased by one. 9 As far as this theory is concerned there are different views. 10 The machine was tried under severe conditions. 11 With a catalyst the reaction was accelerated tenfold. 12 This stage was preceded by careful study of the results. 13 If you already know what these terms mean, proceed directly to Chapter 1, in which the procedure is presented. 14 No stage of the design can be completed in the absence of a complete specification of the system under design. 15 This requirement must be met. 16 Little was known about subsequent negotiations except that no agreement was reached. 17 In an inductive argument data about past and future are taken as «reasons». 18 Under these conditions the requirements involved are only partially met. 19 Significant variance reductions can be effected bythese procedures. 20 Considerably less was written about mechanisms for effecting state changes. 21 The incompatibility of «this is good» and «this is not good» is preserved. 22 The intellect is involved into action. 24 Such acts a forbidden by law. 23 The number of degrees of freedom is reduced by the number of imposed constraints.

№ 6 Переведите текст, выделяя модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты

The Plan for Implementation Planning for the implementation of research results should begin when the research itself begins; it should not wait until the results are obtained. Specifically, the technical abilities of those who will use the results and the facilities at their disposal should be taken into account in determining the form and nature of the research results which should be sought. It would be foolish to expect a clerk to solve an equation requiring the calculus of variations; a monograph or a table may be necessary. But a monograph or a table may be able to provide only very approximate solutions to equations. An approximation which is used, however, will produce better results than an exact solution which is ignored. In order to assure that the research results are carried out as intended, it is necessary to develop a detailed plan for their implementation. This need is generally acknowledged where the action ultimately to be taken is to be performed by a computer. In such a situation the researcher recognizes his responsibility for developing a program for the computer. What is not so well recognized is that almost as detailed a program is required for human operators. It is necessary to specify exactly who is to do what, when they are to do it, and how. The who and when can normally be shown on a flow chart which indicates the way that the relevant operations are to be conducted. The what requires detailed instructions in terms of operations that can be performed by the kinds of people involved.

№7. Переведите предложения, выделяя сложные формы причастия I и причастие II

1 This procedure was dropped, having given low yield of end products. 2 Algol is a system being developed and intended to become a universal programming language. 3 In VB language the He to Η bond is largely ionic, being best represented by the structure He: H. 4 The compoundbeing treated for several hours turned dark red. 5 The experiment having been made, everybody was interested in the results. 6 The strategies available in the dynamic situation are complicated functions of information received and actions undertaken in the preceding stages. 7 It was a standpoint shared by many philosophers. 8 Syntax is another major difference, as indicated in the proceeding paragraphs. 9 Ethics is concerned with moral duties of a man. 10 Nearly all the assembly line problems as documented in the literature were solved by this method. 11 All the group II cations studied affected the bands in the 1000-1100 cm3 region to some degree. 12 Science accumulates examples foreseen and verified through practice. 13 A natural consequence of such behavior should be decreased time for problem solution.

№8 Переведите предложения, определяя роль герундия в предложении

1 Learning without thought is labour lost; thought without learning is perilous (Confucius). 2 Seeing is believing. 3 Appetite comes with eating. 4 Upon switching off the current the pressure dropped. 5 Instead of using chlorine, they took bromine. 6 A committee has been established for the purpose of coordinating the nomenclature. 7 They cont inued experimenting with the substance. 8 From here on, the theory starts evaluating the various alternatives of action in terms of the objectives. 9 We have modified the network while retaining the SFS property. 10 Having access to the code was symbolic. 11 It is worthwhile thinking over the effects I have just described. 12 Besides being useful in general interpolation technique, the procedure can be effectively used to approximate the first coefficients of F. 13 The new opportunities may make life on this planet much more worth living. 14 They were against postponing the meeting and for going on with the discussion of this problem.

№ 9 Переведите предложения, определяя функцию инфинитива

It is a very hard undertaking to seek to please everybody. 2 To construct an experiment of this kind seems nearly impossible. 3 This does, to be sure, simplify the measurements somewhat. 4 We attempted to carry out this investigation. 5 To perform this work one must have all the necessary equipment. 6 Rotation spectra can be used to measure bond lengths. 7With these conditions there are also opposing factors to be considered. 8 It is too urgent a matter to be postponed. 9 Some molecules are large enough to be seen on the electron microscope. 10 Thomas was the first to focus attention on this type of reaction. 11 To judge by the results obtained, the postulate of these workers proved correct.12.In order to demonstrate the effect Table 1 is given. Контрольная работа № 1 Вариант 2

№1.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на а) существительные во множественном числе и б) существительные в притяжательной форме

1 Its structure will obviously emphasize the poles’ rule as system parameters. 2 Though unofficial memoranda of the subject were under intensive discussion. 3 According to Locke’s theory sense data are the only source of knowledge. 4 In addition to differences in their physical properties the two materials differ in their technology. 5 In accordance with statistic data nearly one-third of the Earth’s population experiences freshwater shortages even today. 6 The structure’s static nature has limited effectiveness due to two implicit assumptions. 7 Of ten metrics enumerated by Day’s model six have polynomial time algorithms. 8 Hypothesis is a necessary instrument for a scientific investigation. 9 The most important considerations are the mathematical nature of the problems to be solved. 10 They could not predict efficiencies. 11 By pure numismatics he understood the simple activities of collecting, classifying and describing numismatic items.

№ 2 Переведите предложения, используя правило ряда

1 The uptake of oxygen is the rate-determining step of the reaction. 2 Procedure-oriented languages are usually related to a class of problem types. 3 They had a tendency to a risk prone behaviour. 4 The remaining concern is to take into account varying demand rates and cost variables. 5 The research team developed a new kind of information receiving system. 6 They presented the mass of data necessary for effective land use planning. 7 The cold light source lamps operate at low power levels. 8 Cocyclization of II produced a completely different product distribution. 9 Two additional large centrifugal type heat pump water heaters have been provided. 10 Thelogic device produces a specific type signal for specific sensor state.

№ 3 Переведите предложения, определяя форму сказуемого (время, вид, залог)

1 It had long been understood that sound was related to the vibration of a mechanical system. 2 Up to this point we have been discussing information retrieval in general terms. 3 So far we have been able to visualize what was being discussed. 4 He has also designed and is implementing a much more comprehensive plan. 5 Furthermore, a method for deriving the optical data has been proposed (16) and is currently being computationally evaluated. 6 Nowadays not only is business becoming a science, but science has in most instances already become a business. 7 Instrument-carrying probes will have been launched on trips to faraway places in the Milky Way. 8 The system looks for data which are precomputed.

№ 4 Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание глаголу to be

This constraint is of practical value. 2 This was due to the noise disturbances. 3 Intuitive conclusions based on immediate observation are not always to be trusted, for they are often misleading. 4 Their failure to obtain satisfactory results in the latter case is not due to testing table. 5 A different approach to the problem is due to Pernedo (1972). 6 Pleasure is not the sole good. 7 This analysis is possible due to the recourse to mathematical methods of statistics. 8 The fundamental task of system analysis is not solving problems but defining them.

№5. Переведите предложения, выделяя сказуемые в страдательном залоге

1 The task is executed through successive completion of such cycles.2.The importance of this phenomenon was underestimated. 3 What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure (S. Johnson). 4 The special case derivations will not be provided, but the numerical results will be provided.5. The point of equilibrium however is tremendously influenced by the temperature. 6 The results were affected by the presence of impurities. 7 This phenomenon has been dealt with by several researchers. 8 In ethers and similar solvents the frequency was unaffected. 9 No difficulties were met at all. 10 The reaction was followed by measuring temperature. 11 The experiment will befollowed by testing the end product. 12 This usage is not followed in carbohydrate chemistry. 13 Hamilton’s discovery was quickly followed by other new algebras. 14 No amount of selected examples, however convincing, can be relied upon. 15 What is watched or waited for seems too long in coming. 16 As far as other compounds of this series are concerned they will be dealt with in another chapter. 17 While such special cases are rather easily dealt with the general problem is considerably more difficult. 18 The changes in water content will be accompanied by alterations in salt concentrations, and the latter are also affected by the ionic concentrations of the food ingested. 19 This problem can be approached from several points of view. 20 The congress was referred to as a most representative forum in this field. 21 Fallacies of this kind can of ten be met with. 22 Every thing is affected by its relations to everything else. 23 A decision was arrived at. 24 Once the form of the model has been specified it must be subjected to a critical evaluation.

№6. Переведите текст, выделяя модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты

The Plan for Implementation Planning for the implementation of research results should begin when the research itself begins; it should not wait until the results are obtained. Specifically, the technical abilities of those who will use the results and the facilities at their disposal should be taken into account in determining the form and nature of the research results which should be sought. It would be foolish to expect a clerk to solve an equation requiring the calculus of variations; a monograph or a table may be necessary. But a monograph or a table may be able to provide only very approximate solutions to equations. An approximation which is used, however, will produce better results than an exact solution which is ignored. In order to assure that the research results are carried out as intended, it is necessary to develop a detailed plan for their implementation. This need is generally acknowledged where the action ultimately to be taken is to be performed by a computer. In such a situation the researcher recognizes his responsibility for developing a program for the computer. What is not so well recognized is that almost as detailed a program is required for human operators. It is necessary to specify exactly who is to do what, when they are to do it, and how. The who and when can normally be shown on a flow chart which indicates the way that the relevant operations are to be conducted. The what requires detailed instructions in terms of operations that can be performed by the kinds ofpeople involved.

№7. Переведите предложения, выделяя сложные формы причастия I. и причастие II

1 Danger foreseen is half avoided. 2 The results obtained disagreed with earlier data. 3 Statements, in turn, are strings of symbols from a given alphabet, composed of letters, digits and special characters. 4 The set of basic operations provided is not, in general, suited to the execution of commonly needed procedures.5.The approach being based on mathematical methods is concerned with structural considerations. 6 Having had considerable experience with the difficulties of lithium isotope analysis, we would advise against accepting all reported separation factors. 7 Having introduced a purely mathematical definition of a system, let us now make precise another intuitive concept — that of a process. 8 Having determined the meaning of the Z2 norm we make the following definitions. 9 Hav ing been employed abundantly in many industrial processes electronic computers show a notable example of progress contributing to the development of industry. 10 Having taken everything into consideration he decided not to go there.11. When properly carried out, microwave determination of depole moment should be of considerable reliability.

№ 8 Переведите предложения, определяя роль герундия в предложении

1 We were all for starting the experiment at once. 2 It is no use speaking of it. 3 Operating conditions differed widely. 4 It is customary to dry the precipitate on the paper without removing it from the funnel. 5 They could not help seeing the importance of the process. 6 It is commonly understood that regular queues before a theatre or a cinema are one sign that the show is worth seeing. 7 The purpose of the method is determining system stability. 8 In one’s search to understand what happens in this particular case, one cannot help being influenced by the history of quite another problem. 9 We succeeded in building a flexible system. 10 The architects’ aim is applying more plastics for interior decoration. 11 It may well be worthwhile considering the purpose of the investigation. 12 Search theory is potentially applicable to any sort of searching process. 13 The missionaries kept coming back from the Latinized continent. 14 Balancing is done by adjusting the position of the rods.

№ 9 Переведите предложения, определяя функцию инфинитива

1 Our purpose here is to attempt to give an answer to the unsolved problem outlined at the outset. 2 Two numbers —latitude and longitude, for instance, are enough to fix your position. 3 The experiments described by Fisher, to mention only a few, indicate that the time paths can be considerably different. 4 The operations are efficient enough to have little effect on the speed of the simulation. 5 Also, the programs to be verified will have to be well-constructed, to make the job easier. 6 This correspondence dealt with books published or to be published. 7 To have got into the tradition of science in that way is to me more pleasing than to be specially mentioned. 8 A small computer company announced a computer small enough to set on a desktop and powerful enough to support high level language programming.

№10. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

1) Как ни обширны эти данные, вам следует проверить еще раз эту теорию. 2) Именно рассмотрение данных с разных точек зрения и даст давно ожидаемый ответ. 3) К …. 2000 было проложено лишь 50% всей протяженности трубопровода «US — GM». 4) То, что требуется здесь это тщательный анализ ошибок начала эксперимента. 5) Там, где был применен данный метод, были получены просто потрясающие результаты. 6) Так существующие исследования доказали, что данный метод не является таким ценным, на что он претендовал. Было и остается неясным, в чем же источник его популярности. 7) Как бы ни была эта работа трудна, её необходимо закончить в кратчайшие сроки. 8) Ожидаемые результаты моего исследования действительно принадлежат к запрещенной теме. 9) В статье предлагается новая интерпретация рассматриваемой проблемы.Контрольная работа №2 Вариант 1

№1. Переведите предложения, выделяя сослагательное наклонение в форме Indefinite

1 It is urgent that we debate the importance of such gatherings. 2 But for relativity, the ether might still be with us as a fact though unobservable. 3 By about 1880 it seemed as if the world of science were fairly well explained. 4 If the formal axioms did not agree more or less with the properties of physical objects, then geometry would be of little interest. 5 In many types of experiments it is essential that phage growth start almost simultaneously in all infected bacteria. 6 Care should be taken that the packing be as uniform as possible. 7 The facts do not always answer our questions as unmistakably as might be desirable. 8 Even problems that would be termed «simple» nowadays could not be handled in a straightforward way. 9 Make exact calculations lest you should fail with your experiment. 10 This would be truer in some types of operations than in others.

№2. Переведите предложения, выделяя сослагательное наклонение в форме Perfect

1 For all sad words of tongue or pen, the saddest are these: «It might have been» (J. Whittier). 2 In the first place we might not have listed all the facts needed, and we would have j no experience in finding new ones. 3 If the whole effect were j to be traced to this cause, then our assumption would have been correct. 4 1887 was the year in which Ricci Levi-Civita elaborated the tensor calculus without which general relativity would have been impossible. 5 I ordered to incorporate this aspect in the analysis; otherwise it would have been necessary to make rather detailed assumptions about the scheme. 6 Their communication would have been more vivid if it had been illustrated with examples. 7 The stock level could have been reduced still further if the tax laws had made this advantageous.

№3. Переведите, предложения, определяя грамматические явления, использованные в предложениях

1 Under the conditions described the reaction would proceed only with difficulty.2 The electrons were looked upon as being merely minute corpuscles. 3 Let me now explain the way in which a wave is to be imagined. 4 Joule determined the mechanical equivalent of heat to equal 4.189 J/cal. 5 Were the intensity of all the beams alike, we should get an opposite result. 6 Each of these procedures has been followed in a few researches. 7 If there were no air the stone and the piece of paper would fall together. 8 Johnson has found the effect to be much greater at higher than at lower altitudes. 9 All these elements are radioactive their atoms being unstable and undergoing spontaneous disintegration. 10 The amount of scattering to be expected on the basis of the formula given above was computed by Einstein. 11 In particular the author would like to thank L. Apker for many valuable suggestions. 12 Work is the result of energy, the latter usually being defined as capacity for doing work. 13 With respect to size several stars have been found to be many million times the size of the sun. 14 The heating elements can be easily exchanged, should the need arise. 15 The reader is asked to overlook a slight degree of repetitions inevitable in such a book as this. 16 He was the first to determine the exact weight proportions of the components of water. 17 Once formed, bubbles rise because of the vapour being less dense than the liquid in which it is suspended. 18 Were the Earth stationary, the movements of the atmosphere would be controlled almost entirely by temperature differences. 19 Other conditions being equal, the temperature remains the same. 20 It seems reasonable that the relations found to hold so well for these films should be true in general. 21 The gas to be tested is enclosed in a long glass tube. 22 The work of Rutherford followed by great research work of many other scientists is known to every physicist.

№4. Переведите текст на русский язык:

Putting my books into order one day, I came across a description of the process of making steel. Having read the description, I became interested in metallurgy. My father, being an engineer himself, was very pleased when he heard me speaking to my friends about the methods of makingvarious kinds of steel. Once, being asked by my father what I wanted to read, I told him that I wanted to read a book about the secret of making Damask steel. Remembering my wish, my father went to the library. Having been asked for such a book, the librarian promised to look for it. Having come back in the evening, my father told me that the librarian did not know if she would be able to get the desired book. Next day, being not far from the library, he decided to ask the librarian whether she found the necessary book. Seeing my father, the librarian told him the book was not in the library. Having received this answer, my father decided to get the book in some other way. Being invited to take part in a scientific conference in Moscow, my father said that he would try to get the book there. Knowing that my father was always as good as his word, I told my friends that I would receive the book next month. Having returned from the conference, my father put the book on my table while I was at school. Expecting my father to come back on that day, I ran from school as fast as I could. Seeing an automobile at the front door, I understood that father had returned. While listening to my father’s description of the journey, I forgot about the book. Having looked at his watch my father said that it was time for me to do my lessons. When being asked about the book he said that I should soon have it. Coming into my room, the first thing I saw was the book I was waiting for.

№5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на слова — «ложные друзья переводчика»

1) …where they stand presently in the course of the system development, how far they have gone their efforts in putting them to actual use, and their plans for the future. 2) The unit can be adopted as a permanent component in the final product. 3) …there is considerable probability that the values adopted are near the truth. 4) They differ, however, in the adoption of an aerodynamic formulation. 5) Alternative procedures are as follows:.. 6) Some alternative receiver architectures are discussed along with performance tradeoffs. 7) Perhaps the analyses have become too formal. 8) Thorough analysis at an early stage in design can be the most cost effective approach to spacecraft design. 9) The analyses are not in agreement with each other, and, in some cases,conflict with observations. 10) It has been argued that it was his best work. 11) However, the interpreter does compromise the execution speed. 12) The scanning system, which is described in details elsewhere (1), is quite simple in concept. 13) This is a conservative design. And the result is conservative, indeed.

№6. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

1 Все эти приобретения нашей науки были сделаны в различное время. 2 Очевидный выход из положения все же связан с некоторой опасностью. 3 Значительные усилия должны быть сделаны для разработки аппарата, дающего меньшие потери ценного топлива. 4 Математика – это точная наука. 5 Как сообщают, данные серии экспериментов очень важны для внесения некоторых изменений в устройство рассматриваемого механизма. 6 Заметим в скобках, что даже 2 грамм данного вещества достаточно, чтобы изменить ход реакции и привести к аварии всей установки. 7 При осуществлении приемочного контроля необходимо присутствие всех специалистов на объекте. 8 Представляется, что проблема остается практически неизученной, несмотря на её актуальность. 9 Наша цель состоит в том, чтобы внести некоторый вклад в её изучение. 10 Мы не ставим перед собой задачу дать всестороннее описание этого процесса. 11 Мы исходим из предпосылки, что все предыдущие исследования в данной области значительно искажали сущность этого процесса. 12 В основе этой работы лежит сопоставление источников различных типов, а также результаты эксперимента, проведенного независимо тремя исследовательскими центрами.Контрольная работа №2 Вариант 2

№1. Переведите предложения, выделяя сослагательное наклонение в форме Indefinite

1 He asked that they be permitted to return to their homes. 2 It would be indeed strange if this were not the case, because the situation is clear. 3 We might well compare the conditions thus created to the present conditions. 4 They did not mention the subject again lest it should occasion a fresh testing. 5 They lived as if it was an imaginary world. 6 It is not necessary that the substance to be digested be brought entirely within the cells. 7 But for this increment, the system would stay in the same position indefinitely. 8 One difficulty is that to make large crystals the molten rock would have to be cooled down very slowly, so that a single experiment would last for thousands of years. 9 Such differences could be of advantage, because these catalysts may complement each other. 10 This would have to be a basic postulate for any general theory of computer applications.

№2. Переведите предложения, выделяя сослагательное наклонение в форме Perfect

1 Such a privilege would necessarily have led to competition with the merchants. 2 She must have forgotten all about it otherwise she would have used it. 3 The actual system would not have deadlocked under these circumstances, though. 4 But for the lack of a reliable instrument the problem could have been solved long ago. 5 But for the data presented by Prof. N. the work might not have been completed. 6 One might have suspected that, since 78% of the events arise at 1, the strategy would have concentrated search effort there. This does not happen because 80% of the events last at least 4 units. 7 The system is in a state as if this transaction had never happened. 8 To have tested all possible combinations would have required a prohibitive effort.

№3. Переведите, предложения, определяя грамматические явления, использованные в предложениях

1 Simple substances consist of atoms, each substance having its own special kind of atom. 2 Electrons can be made to travel at very high speeds. 3 The question is how closely these data represent the results likely to beobtained in practice. 4 Special honour belongs to Thomson in having first formulated a theory to connect these matters as early as 1904 5 See that the various parts of the electrometer be connected so as to have definite relative potentials. 6 The relationship that should exist between observations and their interpretation is one that has not always been clearly defined. 7 There is every reason to believe that if one could obtain an absolutely pure gas, an ion in this gas would have a unique mobility. 8 For difraction patterns to show themselves, it is necessary that the width of the slit employed should be of the order of magnitude of the wavelength of the light. 9 If the air molecules were stationary we should expect the smoke particles to remain stationary also. 10 A mere list of the numerous applications which have been proposed and written about would provide material for a full chapter. 11 To shorten the experiment, it is suggested that only logarithmic plots for each point be made and the approximate space potentials be determined. 12 Upon classical theory the frequency of emitted radiation would be expected to be equal to the orbital frequency of revolution, the conception here introduced being quite different. 13 With the Earth gradually solidifying from a fluid condition, the heavier substances would be expected to sink toward the center while the lighter would tend to float upon the surface. 14 If the molecules of a gas are widely separated they must be in motion. Otherwise they would settle out. 15 The property of hindering the flow of electricity is called electrical resistance, the longer wire having a greater electrical resistance than the shorter one. 16 Never has a better oscillator been designed. 17 Unfortunately, this idea, attractive as it is by its very simplicity, appears incapable of being sustained. 18 Valves prevent gases from reaching high pressure. 19 Wax is not a crystal. Nor is glass crystalline. 20 It is with the cyclotron that this book is concerned. 21 These relations are found to follow certain perfectly definite rules. 22 These experiments enable comparison to be made of the effect of individual ions.

№4. Переведите текст на русский язык:

Putting my books into order one day, I came across a description of the process of making steel. Having read the description, I became interested in metallurgy. My father, being an engineer himself, was very pleased when he heard me speaking to my friends about the methods of making various kinds of steel. Once, being asked by my father what I wanted to read, I told him that I wanted to read a book about the secret of making Damask steel. Remembering my wish, my father went to the library. Having been asked for such a book, the librarian promised to look for it. Having come back in the evening, my father told me that the librarian did not know if she would be able to get the desired book. Next day, being not far from the library, he decided to ask the librarian whether she found the necessary book. Seeing my father, the librarian told him the book was not in the library. Having received this answer, my father decided to get the book in some other way. Being invited to take part in a scientific conference in Moscow, my father said that he would try to get the book there. Knowing that my father was always as good as his word, I told my friends that I would receive the book next month. Having returned from the conference, my father put the book on my table while I was at school. Expecting my father to come back on that day, I ran from school as fast as I could. Seeing an automobile at the front door, I understood that father had returned. While listening to my father’s description of the journey, I forgot about the book. Having looked at his watch my father said that it was time for me to do my lessons. When being asked about the book he said that I should soon have it. Coming into my room, the first thing I saw was the book I was waiting for.

№5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на слова — «ложные друзья переводчика»

1) These require detailed knowledge of the size and location of the thermojunction. 2) … but a detailed agreement between theory and observation remains to be achieved. 3) This paper focuses on measurement and modeling of hard failures in multiprocessors. 4) It translates to a technical approach in which the hardware is generalized and specific operations are implemented in software or perhaps firmware.5) The histories computed using the present model are thought to be good approximations to the unfurling rates experienced during the flight test being studied. 6) Ideas for future work are discussed in an appendix. 7) Although, the track record is impressive, time will tell whether it will continue. 8) It is instructive to apply each of the above Q derivations to the distributed notch structure. 9) If a computer mimics the logical behavior of a man, a distributed computer system mimics the behavior of an organisation. 10) This is, in fact the view originally suggested by the author (44) and widely accepted among many scientists. 11) While this technique is indeed a significant one and is already finding many applications, it is certainly not a panacea due to certain intrinsic physical limitations. 13) It should be pointed out that the accoupled gas-discharge technique is certainly not a panacea for all types of display requirements.

№6. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

1) Как ни обширны эти данные, вам следует проверить еще раз эту теорию. 2) Именно рассмотрение данных с разных точек зрения и даст давно ожидаемый ответ. 3) К …. 2000 было проложено лишь 50% всей протяженности трубопровода «US — GM». 4) То, что требуется здесь это тщательный анализ ошибок начала эксперимента. 5) Там, где был применен данный метод, были получены просто потрясающие результаты. 6) Так существующие исследования доказали, что данный метод не является таким ценным, на что он претендовал. Было и остается неясным, в чем же источник его популярности. 7) Как бы ни была эта работа трудна, её необходимо закончить в кратчайшие сроки. 8) Ожидаемые результаты моего исследования действительно принадлежат к запрещенной теме. 9) В статье предлагается новая интерпретация рассматриваемой проблемы.

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