Контрольная работа по дисциплине «Английский язык» для ОАТК



Практические задания

Задание 1. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
Learning to program is definitely difficult. At all the initial stages of learning programming it will be easier to those beginners who are fluent in mathematics, as programming is closely connected with mathematics. Another important advantage when learning to program is its way of positive nature. Programming requires a person the ability to write, the ability to think, to think logically, to be patient, etc. Programmers are not born, programmers become! Therefore, the best way of learning programming is, of course, the practice.
1) Is positive nature an advantageous characteristic of programming?
2) What requires a person different abilities including the ability to use logical approach?
3) Why should a beginner be fluent in mathematics? What do you think?
4) Is learning to program enomorously or moderately difficult?
5) Learning programming confers the proberb «Practice makes perfect», doesn`t it?
Задание 2. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
To start with the beginner needs the easiest programming languages. For example, many strongly recommended to start with are «C» or «C+ +» or may be «Pascal» or « Basic» and another fifty. Of course, to start programming you need to have a computer, preferably the Internet and the desire for it. Many are starting to learn the basics, programming throw this thing in the first week, thinking that programming should be born by the programmer. Such periods in this direction occur at all. Beginners need the first language of choice, they need to know it inside out.
1) Does a beginner need knowledge of the most simple programming languages?
2) What should the result of positive activities of the programmer be?
3) What programming language will you recommend a newcomer to use at the first stages of learning to program?
4) Do beginners need the first language they have chosen themselves or the one strongly recommended by experienced programmers? early periods of learning
5) The desire to become an expert helps a beginner in the early periods of learning programming, doesn`t it?
Задание 3. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
History of the development of microelectronics is an integral part of the history of technological progress. Without a doubt , «first impulse» to the emergence of microelectronics was the invention of the Americans J. Bardeen and W. Brattain the point transistor. This happened in 1948 under the roof of Bell Telephone Laboratories. First transistors were based on germanium and they were very imperfect. The main shortcomings indicated instability of characteristics and dependence on temperature, increased noise, low power and high cost.
1) Do you agree that history of the development of microelectronics is an integral part of the history of technological development?
2) Who invented the point transistor?
3) When did the first transistor appear? Where did it happen?
4) Does the imperfect character of the first transistors result from the dependence on temperature and increased noise or low power and high cost?
5) The major drawbacks of the first transistors were connected with strong divergence of characteristics, weren`t they?
Задание 4. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
RPG II is a business-oriented programming language. The name stands for report program generator. RPG is considerably different from other programming languages. RPG is, in effect, a large prewritten program. The programmer simply indicates the options within the master program that are to be used and, through a set of indicators, when they are to be used. RPG was originally referred to as a «quick-and-dirty» programming language. That is, it is quick for the programmer to write and relatively inefficient in its use of main storage and processing speed.
1) Does RPG greatly differ from any other programming language?
2) What stands for report program generator?
3) What is the reason for the nickname «quick-and-dirty» referred to RPG?
4) Is RPG a business-oriented or learning-oriented programming language?
5) When using RPG it is impossible for the programmer to indicate the options within the master program, isn`t it?
Задание 5. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
Under MS-DOS 3.20 you can create and access names for many different types of devices — just as if they are physical disk drives installed in your system. The devices you can access as disks are: internal floppy-disk drives, external floppy-disk drives, additional drive identifiers for floppy-disk drives, defined by DRIVER.SYS, hard-disk drives of many different sizes, RAM disks created in the computer`s memory, directories that have been given logical drive names using SUBST. Although this makes it possible to configure an extremely powerful system, it also means you have to take the utmost care in creating suitable CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT.
1) Can you call the devices enumerated in the text?
2) What makes it possible to configure an extremely powerful system?
3) What devices can you access as disks?
4) Can you create and access names for many different types of devices or for devices of only one type when you use MS-DOS?
5) Great care should be taken in creating suitable CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC,BAT, shouldn`t it?
Задание 6. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
Set off in 1989, the WWW quickly gained great popularity among Internet users. What is the reason for the immense success of the World-Wide Web? Perhaps, it can be explained by CERN`s* attitude towards the development of the project. As soon as the basic outline of the WWW was complete, CERN made the source code for its software publicly available. CERN has been encouraging collaboration by academic and commercial parties since the onset of the project, and by doing so it got millions of people involved in the growth of the web.
European Laboratory for Particle Physics is the name which is used now.
1) Did Internet users evaluate the advantages of WWW almost from its setting at the end of 1980s?
2) What was made publicly available by CERN?
3) What has CERN been encouraging ? Why? Express your opinion.
4) Were lots of people involved in the growth of the web or was the web meant for a limited circle of users?
5) CERN is an abbreviation which stands for the «Counseil Europeen pour la Recherch Nucleare» (French), isn`t it?
Задание 7. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
Together with the monitor the videocard forms a video subsystem of the personal computer. It was not always that the videocard was the personal computer component. At dawn developments of personal computer facilities in the general area of Random Access Memory there was a small allocated screen area of memory, in which the processor brought data, the image. The special controller of the screen read out data on brightness of separate points of the screen from the cells of memory of this area and in compliance with them a horizontal beam of an electronic gun monitor was developed.
1) Was the videocard the original unit of the personal computer?
2) What forms a video subsystem of the personal computer?
3) What can you say about early days of personal computer facilities?
4) Did the special controller of the screen read out data on brightness of separate or united points of the screen from the cells of memory of this area?
5)The development of a horizontal beam of an electronic gun monitor allowed the appearance of the videocard as a part of a video subsystem of the personal computer, didn`t it?
Задание 8. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
With transition from black-and-white monitors to color and with increase in permission of the screen video memory areas became insufficient for storage of graphic data, and the processor ceased to cope with construction and image updating. Then occurred allocation of all operations connected with control of the screen, in the separate block, the video adapter which has received the name. The video adapter is also called as the videocard. The video adapter assumed functions of the video controller, the video processor and the video memory.
1)Were transition from black-and-white monitors to color and increase in permission of the screen the reasons for insufficiency of video memory areas for storage of graphic data?
2) What apparatus ceased to cope with construction and image updating?
3) What are the functions of the video adapter? Can you describe them?
4) Were all operations connected with control of the screen allocated in the separate block or only chosen ones?
5) The synonim of the term «video adapter» is «video card», isn`t it? русский язык. Ответьте на в
Задание 9. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
MS-DOS is an operating system — a piece of software which looks after the running of your computer. It lets you create and keep track of files, run and link programs, and make use of peripheral devices (for example, printers and disk drives) attached to your computer. Because your computer can run with one of several different operating systems (for example, MS-DOS, CP/M) the operating system is not built into the computer. Instead it is loaded from disk when the computer is started up. Once the operating system has been loaded into the computer`s memory the disk from which it was loaded may be removed.
1) Do you think MS-DOS to be useful nowadays?
2) What looks after the running of your computer?
3) What are the functions of MS-DOS?
4) Can your computer run with one of several different operating systems or should the operating system be unique?
5) The operating system is obligatory built into the computer, isn`t it?
Задание 10. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
Computers store information on disks in files. A file is a collection of related information such as a computer program or the text of a letter. Each file is given a unique name, and each filename is stored in a directory. To find out about the files in a directory, use the MS-DOS command DIR. When referring to a file, you must use a file specification. This consist of a pathname, a filename and an extention (if there is one). As an example, to reference a file on drive B: called FRED.BAS (where the default drive is «A») the correct file specification would be: B: FRED.BAS.
1) Are files important? Prove your opinion.
2) What is stored on disks in files?
3) What is the definition of the term «file»?
4) Is each file given a unique name or is it possible to use one name for different files?
5) To find out about the files in a directory, the MS-DOS message DIR should be used, shouldn`t it?
Задание 11. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
Arranging drives is the following: Letters are assigned to the drives that you can access in a logical order. Drives that are built into your system are automatically assigned drive letters and physical drive numbers. Physical drive numbers are normally used by MS-DOS, but you also use them with the DRIVER. SYS driver in a CONFIG. SYS file. Logical drive numbers correspond directly with drive letters (0 corresponds to drive A, and so on). These are used in CONFIG.SYS with the DRIVARM command.
1) Do logical drive numbers correspond with drive letters in alphabetic order?
2) What numbers are normally used by MS-DOS?
3) How can you describe drives that are built into your system?
4) Can you access letters assigned to the drives in a logical or random order?
5) Logical drive numbers do not correspond directly with drive letters, do they?
Задание 12. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
There are a number of Network Information Centers located throughout the Internet to serve its users with documentation, guidance, advice and assistance. As the Internet continues to grow internationally, the need for high quality functions of these Centers increases. Although the initial community of users of the Internet were drawn from the ranks of computer science and engineering its users now comprise a wide range of disciplines in the science, arts, letters, business, military and government administration.
1) Can you describe the disciplines the users of the Internet now comprise?
2) What stands for NIC? What do you think?
3) What do you understand by the Internet is growing internationally?
4) Are the users of the Internet served only with documentation, guidance, advice and assistance or should the list of services be continued?
5) A range of disciplines the users of the Internet now comprise will continue to widen, won`t it?
Задание 13. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
The operating system is a collection of programs provided by the computer`s manufacturer that allows us to schedule jobs for the computer, to translate source programs into object programs, to sort data stored on secondary storage devices, and to copy data from any input device to any output device. These programs are called control programs, language programs and utility programs. The control program is a main-storage-resident program. Its functions are to schedule jobs, schedule input and output for our programs, and to monitor the execution of our programs.
1) Can the control program be called the supervisor, the monitor or the executive program? What is your opinion?
2) Who provides the collection of programs?
3) What does the operating system allows us to do?
4) Does the control program have one function or are its functions various?
5) To sort data stored on secondary storage devices isn`t the only function of the operating system, is it?
Задание 14. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
It is interesting to note that memory, one of the basic components of the computer, is often called storage. It stores calculation program, the calculation formulae, initial data, intermediate and final results. Therefore, the functions of the computer memory may by classified in the following way. Firstly, the computer memory must store the information transmitted from the input and other devices. Secondly, memory should produce the information needed for the computation process to all other devices of the computer.
1) Do you know the classification of the computer memory functions?
2) What term can be used as a synonym to the term «memory»?
3) What does memory store?
4) Is it interesting to note that in computer science different terms can be used to describe the same idea or is this information unnecessary for you?
5) Memory should produce the information needed for the computation process to a limited number of devices, shouldn`t it?
Задание 15. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
As we see, most of the symbolic languages are oriented toward the particular application areas of business or science (math). The one problem with all symbolic languages is that none of them can be understood by a computer. The symbolic languages may say AP, ADD, or use a «plus» sign to indicate an addition step, but the only thing that means addition to a computer is its binary machine code. We have symbolic programs that are relatively easy for humans to understand, but they cannot be understood by computers.
1) Do you agree that most of the symbolic languages are oriented toward the specific application areas?
2) What is the one problem with all symbolic languages?
3) How does a computer understand that addition operation must be fulfilled?
4) Are symbolic programs relatively easy for humans or for computers to understand?
5) Not a single symbolic language can be understood by a computer, can`t it?
Задание 16. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
We have machine code that is understood by a computer, but it is difficult for humans to use. The solution is a translator that translates the symbolic program into machine code. The translator allows the human to work with relatively easy-to-understand symbolic languages and it allows the computer to follow instructions in machine code. The translations of symbolic instructions to machine code is accomplished through the use of program called a language processor. There are three types of language processors. They are called assemblers, compilers, and interpreters.
1) Is a translator the solution of the described problem?
2) What allows the human to work with relatively easy-to-understand symbolic languages? Why?
3) What is the reason that the machine code is easy for a computer to understand, but difficult for people to use? What do you think?
4) Are there three types of language processors or data processors?
5) It is impossible to translate symbolic instructions to machine code through the use of the program called a language processor, isn`t it?
Задание 17. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
COBOL was the most widely used business –oriented programming language. Its name is an acronym for Common Business-Oriented Language. COBOL was designed to solve problems that are oriented toward data handling and input-output operations. Of course, COBOL can perform arithmetic operations as well, but its greatest flexibility is its data handling. COBOL also was designed as a self-documenting language. Self-documenting languages are those that do not require a great deal of explanation in order to be understood by someone reading the program instructions.
1) Do you know what the term acronym means?
2) What stands for COBOL?
3) What type of language is COBOL? How can you describe it?
4) Are data handling and input-output operations the areas where COBOL can solve problems?
5) Self-documenting languages are those that obligatory require a great deal of explanation in order to be understood by someone reading the program instructions, aren`t they ?
Задание 18. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
The FORTRAN IV language is oriented toward solving problems of mathematical nature. The name FORTRAN comes from the combination of the words formula translation. The version of FORTAN IV has been designed as algebra-based programming language. Any formula or those mathematical relationships that can be expressed algebraically can easily be expressed as a FORTRAN instruction. FORTRAN is the most commonly used language for scientific applications.
1) Are the problems FORTRAN can solve of mathematical character?
2) What stands for FORTRAN?
3) What type of language is FORTRAN? How can you describe it?
4) Is FORTRAN the most commonly used language for scientific or production applications?
5) Not all formulae or those mathematical relationships that can be expressed algebraically can easily be expressed as a FORTRAN instruction, can`t they?
Задание 19. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту. BASIC is the acronym for beginner`s all purpose symbolic instruction code. It was developed in Dartmouth College as an easy-to-learn programming language for students and inexperienced programmers. Its key design goal is simplicity. BASIC has become a very popular language in systems where many users share the use of a computer through terminals and it has become a universal language for personal computers. The language BASIC is mathematically oriented, that is, its typical use is to solve problems of a mathematical nature.
1) Did the specialists of Dartmouth College have the definite aim when developing the programming language they called BASIC? What do you think?
2) What stands for BASIC ?
3) What type of language is BASIC? How can you describe it?
4) Is BASIC useful only for students and inexperienced programmers or for advanced programmers too ?
5) The key design goal of BASIC is its flexibility, isn`t it ?
Задание 20. Прочитайте текст и переведите его на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы, данные к тексту.
PASCAL was invented in 1970 by Professor Niklaus Wirth of Zurich, Switzerland. It was named after the mathematician Blaise Pascal ,who invented one of the easiest practical calculators. PASCAL is a mathematically oriented programming language and, as such, is most commonly used in mathematics, engineering, and computer science departments of colleges and universities. This language is somewhat unusual in that it was designed to be a structured language. This means that the program must be written in logical modules which are in turn called by a main controlling module.
1) Did Blaise Pascal invent one of the most easy-to-use practical calculators ?
2) What invention was named after the mathematician Blaise Pascal?
3) What type of language is PASCAL? How can you describe it?
4) Must only logical approaches be used when the program is written or the character of approaches should be wider ?
5) The structural character of PASCAL is the reason of this programming language being different from other ones, isn`t it?

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