All business professionals need to become good communicators to succeed. To achieve success, it is essential to establish effective communication habits. Effective communication takes preparation, practice and persistence. Good communicators get themselves organized before they write any material. They research the subject matter to be discussed and have defined objectives to motivate their readers to action. They always consider the information the reader needs, and review and rework it for increased clarity and sense. Unclear and confusing correspondence can cause many problems, and can lead to misunderstandings, delays, lost business and poor relations between individuals, departments and companies. A good writing style should give a positive message, show the writer’s familiarity with the subject matter, relate the right information in concise, friendly manner, and, if necessary motivate the reader.
The tasks of writing letters in reply to input materials included in the manual are aimed at developing skills of expressing opinions, evaluating, hypothesizing, justifying, persuading, prioritizing, summarizing, comparing and contrasting as well as advising, apologizing, correcting, describing, explaining, recommending and suggesting. It is necessary to understand whether the purpose of the letter is to persuade someone, to ask an opinion or advise, recommend, correct someone. Keeping the balance between the functions required by the task and the relationship with the target reader is extremely important. It is absolutely necessary for students to think carefully and understand who the target reader is for each task and write in an appropriate style and tone: whether to a client, a colleague or someone in a position of authority.
To succeed in creating a concise high quality letter in reply, first and foremost it is necessary to study the input material which is presented in a letter and accompanying notes. Students need to understand the importance of reading the questions carefully, underlining the most important parts. They need to plan an answer which addresses all the points required by the task.
As the overall aim of business writing is to make the positive effect on the target reader, it is necessary for students to adopt an appropriate style, layout and register for every task. Using a persuasive or cooperative style will instantly engage a recipient, making them much more likely to respond in a positive helpful manner – so it is necessary to be clear, objective, and polite in everything you write. Listing information in simple sentences is not enough: organisation and cohesion, clear layout, balance, appropriate register, control and accuracy of language are all important features of task achievement.
When planning writing it is important to use effective paragraphing. Each of the required points should be presented in a separate paragraph.
Using a variety of linking words is extremely important too, as it ensures that the flow of ideas in the writing is logical and easy for the reader to follow. A good piece of writing should demonstrate an overall cohesion to the whole task at text level as well as at sentence level.
Before doing the task students need to be well aware of criteria of good writing practice – assessment criteria, which include four parameters – content, communicative achievement, organisation and language.
Content focuses on how well the candidate has fulfilled the task, if all the issues are covered in the reply.
Communicative achievement focuses on how appropriate the writing is for the task and whether the writer has used the appropriate register.
Organisation focuses on the way the writer puts together the piece of writing, if it is logical and ordered.
Language focuses on vocabulary and grammar, specifically, on the range of language as well as how accurate it is.
The length of responses matters as well, very short responses may not have an adequate range of language and may not provide the information that is required, while responses which are too long may contain irrelevant content and have a negative effect on the reader.
2. 1. SAMPLE TASK ONE
Ex. 2. 1. 1. Study thoroughly Sample Task One. It contains the task and the input letter.
You must answer this question.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients, PDT
Construction, has applied for a loan to purchase and develop an industrial site. You have received the following letter from PDT Construction’s bank.
Read the letter from Lars Fleming, an Account Manager at the bank, on which you have already made some notes. Then, using all the information in your notes, write to the bank on behalf of your client, PDT Construction.
Write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style. Do not write any postal address.
We have recently received a loan application to
purchase an industrial site from a mutual client, PDT
Construction. However, before we can process the
application, we require further information on some points.
Firstly, in the breakdown of costs for the project we
Will incannot find any reference to architect fees. Can you explain this? house staff be used?
In addition, although we requested company figures
Give for the last five years we have only received accounts for reason the past four years. Why is this?
The funding for the project is also not clear to us.
PDT Construction have requested a loan from this bank
for only 65% of the total investment. We need to know
where the remaining 35% will come from. Explain
Finally, a representative from our bank has looked at
the site and the bank is concerned that the purchase price Disagree — say
Suggest a for the site may be too high. why meeting to I look forward to hearing from you.
discuss the Yours sincerely,
matters Lars Fleming
Ex 2. 1. 2. Analyse three sample answers — Scripts A, B, C. Find mistakes, misunderstandings, inaccuracies, misspellings. Read the comments, prove the mark given by the examiner.
Sample scripts and commentaries
Dear Mr Fleming
As you got the letter from Lars Fleming manager PDT’s Construction, you somehow need some clarifications, so on behalf of Lars we give you further information.
The biggest problem lies with us is the breakdown of costs, as you want explanation its all because we will use inhouse staff who can deal with the project and make sure there are no breakdown of costs.
Due to the inner-problem in our mainstream computers our accounts for fifth year were delayed, but in two weeks time we will show our company figures as our organisation is working on it. The remaining 35% will come from the future insurance and the new plant bought forward by our company, its just a matter of time and patience.
No, that’s absolutely wrong because if you see our past records, you will see we are gaining profit and have minimized loss as compared to others.
We can have a meeting if you have more questions I will make sure you are totally convinced and satisfied. Yours
Content — The scenario and the task appear to have been misinterpreted. The target reader will be only minimally informed. The scenario and the task appear to have been misinterpreted. The target reader will be only minimally informed.
Communicative achievement — While some straightforward ideas are communicated, the target reader might be confused or might have to work very hard to discern intended meaning. There is an attempt to use the appropriate letter genre, but there are problems with register (e.g. on behalf of Lars, No that’s absolutely wrong).
Organisation — The letter uses linking words (so, because) and a limited number of cohesive devices (e.g. Due to, as compared to others) to create some coherence, but there is little evidence of attempts of organization beyond the paragraph level. The writer merely responds to the points in Lars Fleming’s original letter in order, but doesn’t try to relate them to each other.
Language — Everyday vocabulary is used generally appropriately, though there are problems with word choice (e.g. bought forward), punctuation and agreement (e.g. we will show our company figures as our organization is working on it). Simple grammatical forms are used with a good degree of control, but attempts at complex forms are generally unsuccessful. Errors are quite noticeable, but meaning can still be determined.
The mark is poor.
Dear Mr Fleming
Thank you for the letter requesting us some additional information on the loan application.
We can say that the breakdown of cost does not consist any architects’ fees as we are going to use our highly-qualified in-house staff in the project.
We have not provided you with our accounts for the first year because our company was just established only four years ago and the figures of the balance sheet for four years will show you the objective picture. We are going to invest in this project our own money in the amount of 35% of the total investment that is why we have requested a loan for only 65%. We are sure that the purchase price for the site is not too high as it was proved by the report of a well-known appraisal company.
To discuss these and any other details we can organize a meeting with a representative of PDT Construction next week.
If you need any further information please do not hesitate to contact us.
Content — All the content is relevant to the task and the target reader is fully informed.
Communicative Achievement — The conventions of a formal letter are used to hold target reader’s attention and the register is generally appropriate. Straightforward and some slightly more complex ideas are communicated clearly.
Organisation — The text is generally well-organized, with suitable paragraphing and generally good punctuation. There is a range of cohesive devices (e.g. because our company was just established, To discuss these and other details), although not all of these are used appropriately (that is why, as it was proved) Language — Everyday vocabulary is used generally appropriately but there is occasional inappropriate or inaccurate use of lexis (e.g. requesting us some additional information, does not consists any architects’ fees). There is a rrange of simple and more complex grammatical structures that are well-controlled.
Errors do not impede communication.
The mark is satisfactory.
Dear Mr Fleming
In response to your enquiry regarding the loan application of our mutual client, PDT Construction, we are pleased to provide the following details.
Firstly, our client intends to use in-house architects for any work required for the project in question at no incremental costs that could be traced to this particular project.
Secondly, the set of accounts for the most recent accounting period has not been yet signed off by the client’s Board. This delay is due to our client’s accounting and reporting system to IFRS, requiring additional valuation of our client’s fixed assets. To accommodate your need to assess these figures, we have obtained their permission to release the latest management accounts and these are enclosed.
Thirdly, our client restructured their portfolio during the first half of the accounting period just ended. The resulting disposal of assets (see Note 16 of the management accounts enclosed) at unexpectedly high prices allowed our client to accumulate sufficient cash reserves to finance the remaining 35% of the total cost of the investment.
Despite the recent surge in property prices, this particular site has been significantly undervalued. We enclose a copy of the most recent valuation report for your reference.
We are open for any further discussion and ready to meet you in person to clarify any of these or additional details.
Content — All the content is relevant and the points are very well developed. Communicative Achievement — The conventions of the communicative task are used effectively to communicate straightforward and complex ideas with ease, and the candidate demonstrates good control of the appropriate style and tone for the context.
Organisation – The letter is a well-organised and coherent whole, using a variety of cohesive devices and organizational patterns to good effect.
Language – A wide range of vocabulary is used effectively, though some phrases are not used precisely (e.g. at no incremental costs). Wide range of complex structures is used with control and flexibility.
The mark is good.
Ex. 2. 1. 3. In small groups make your own assessment of Script D on the basis of the Assessment Scale. Compare your results with another group. Be ready to prove your point of view.
Dear Mr Fleming
In reply to your letter dated 14 June regarding the loan application of our mutual client, PDT Construction, we would like to comment as follows.
Firstly, our loan application does not show any architects’ fees as you expected in the breakdown for the project. Please note that PDT Construction plans to use in-house staff for architecture work. Therefore, the costs have been included in the operational costs of the project.
We also understand that your bank requires company figures for the last five years. However, PDT Construction has been operating only since 2004. As such, we are unable to provide company figures prior to that year. The company has requested a loan for only 65% of the total investment as the remaining 35% of the fund is financed by retained profit from the last two years. Please refer to the financial statements for more information.
Your bank’s assessment of the purchase price is different from ours. We have done a valuation on the site with support from a third party and enclose the valuation report for your reference.
We hope the above is clear. Please contact us if you need any clarification. Yours sincerely,
Ex. 2. 1. 4. Write your own letter in response to Sample Task 1.
Ex. 2. 1. 5. Exchange your answers with your partner, mark your partner’s letter. Discuss the results.
2.2. SAMPLE TASK TWO
Ex. 2.2.1. Study thoroughly Sample Task Two – the task and the input letter. Analyse 4 sample answers — Scripts A, B, C, D. Mark the scripts, compare your marks with those of your partner. Be ready to prove your marks.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients, Greenberg Products, has contacted a venture capital firm, FWC, with a view to expand its manufacturing side by building a new factory. You have received the following letter from FWC.
Read the letter from Gloria Kutsakova, a director of FWC, on which you have some notes. Then using all the information in your notes, write a letter to MsKutsakova on behalf of your client, Greenberg Products.
Your clients, Greenberg Products, have put in an application for capital to build a new factory.
Firstly, we were interested to see that, over the past two years, while the rest of the industry has been in difficulties, the company has had steady growth. Give reason Could you explain this?
Could you explain why the last set of accounts shows an increase in staffing overheads?
The estimated construction costs for the factory seem Will need
Explain higher than we would expect. Could you clarify this? specialists
We understand that there are three shareholders with a minority interest and it is important for us to know how they might react to an outside investor like Not a ourselves having a stake in the business. problem – Finally, we know that the market for Greenberg’s say why
Extensive products is extremely competitive and we are not market certain that the figures for the projected market share research are realistic.
already We look forward to your reply. done
Gloria Kutsakova Director
Write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style. Do not write any postal address.
As the accountants for Greenberg products, we are glad to receive your letter and honoured to answer the questions you raised.
- Firstly, it is true that the company has had steady growth in terms of both the manufacturing scale and the sales. This is greatly due to the reason that the company has increased its research and development power and become the leading company in this industry because of new high technologies.
- Secondly, since the company is experiency the steady growth, the headcounts for both temporary and permanent positions have been increased. More people need more money to manage and that why an increase in staffing overheads has been presented in the set of accounts. Thirdly, we will invite specialists to help build the new factory, which increases the estimated construction costs, and causes them higher than the expectation.
- Fourthly, we consider it is not a problem. The meeting of shareholders has been held and the resolution of contacting your firm for the capital had been reached through the consensus of over twothirds of the shareholders presented on the meeting. Therefore, you may not worry about the reaction of the shareholders with minority interest. Last but not the least, the question you raised is also the area we concern. We have done an extensive market research, which shows that the figures for projected market share are true. The reason is explained in the first answer above. The new high technologies help the company win morte market share in the competitive market.
We hope the answers above could help you to know more about Greenberg products and make the proper decision.
Thanks and Regards,
Accountants for Greenberg Products
Dear Ms Kutsakova,
We are glad to receive your letter, and we will explain you questions in the following sentences.
Over the past two years , our company remaining steady growth. This is because of the range of customers whom work with us for many years. They believe our quality of work. Also, our company has good reputation in the construction area. We are the No.1 choice of the companies which is want to built a new factory.
The reason for increased staffing overheads we can not explained clearly in this letter. Because our accounting staff and shareholder on processing to check it. I will email you when I got the result.
The costs we gave to you is based on our calculation. The construction materials we used are high quality. It is much expensive than ungurated material. But we think it is the most important thing for building, we need to make sure our product is safe. I think that must what you thinking of.
There is no problem for investor outside like yours having a stake in the business. The three shareholder welcome outside investors whom want to invest our company. From their point of view, it means our company has good value.
For the final question, our extensive market research already , I will put it at back of this letter as attached file. You check it.
Dear Ms Kutsakova,
Thank you very for the letter. Indeed, our clients have managed to acjieve remarkable results in the last two years mainly because of a new series of products introduced in the market not long ago. Since then, all of these products have enjoyed enormous popularity with consumers driving the profits up to an all-time high.
Certainly, the most obvious reaction to the high level of demand was expansion of the business, which usually entails an inevitable increase in all expenses, including the labour overheads you pointed out in your letter. However, these costs are expected to be fully covered by another anticipated rise in profits.
Greenberg products make highly technological products to stay competitive and the construction of a new factory with the most advanced developments in the field will require specialist expertise which is quite expensive.
The minority shareholders you have mentioned are primarily interested in profit maximization and look forward to the construction of a new factory. This will help our clients to secure a solid market position, as extensive market research has shown, which is sure to lead to even higher profits for the shareholders.
It’s my pleasure to receive your letter relevant to my clients, Greenberg Products.
The reason of steady growth in the past two years is mainly due to the company has good internal control system and the company keeps innovation in the R&D field and sales method.
The company’s staffing overheads increased in the last period, which is due to the company carried out one new product recently and need more labour than before, as a result, the staffing overheads increased significantly.
For the estimated construction costs for the new factory, I think it’s need specialists to assess the cost.
The company has three shareholders with a minority interest and total interest of them account to 5%, but the management of the company is affected by shareholders who held over 2o0%, so it’s not a problem for outside investor like you.
The company has done enough extensive market research, and the figures for projected market is realistic.
Ex. 2.2.2. Write your own letter in response to the input letter in Sample Task Two.
DEVELOPING PRACTICAL SKILLS OF WRITING LETTERS INDEPENDENTLY.
Write letters in response to the tasks given below.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients, company Vision, has applied for a loan to the bank, Future, to expand its activities with the purpose of gaining a competitive edge on the market of production and sales of sports clothes. You have received a letter from Ms Blacksmith, Deputy Head Manager of Future, in which she asks you some questions about the project Vision wants to launch.
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to Ms Blacksmith on behalf of your client, company Vision.
- They need a loan for building a new factory. Explain why they plan to set it up in China.
- 50% of the future expenses will be paid by means of mortgage bonds, the rest amount will be a debenture loan.
- Explain the difference between a mortgage bond and a debenture loan.
- Give statistics on profitability of the project.
- Suggest the date and time of meeting Ms Blacksmith in person.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients, Oil Producers, a large oil-producing corporation, has made a decision to buy the controlling interest of the nearby petrol station. You have received a letter from Mr Cherrypot in which he asks you to make research into the financial situation of the business.
Using the information below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to CEO of Oil Producers, Mr Cherrypot.
- Last year was record high coupled with the sixth consecutive year of profit growth.
- There is only one type of shares issued – common shares.
- 20% of the authorized capital is in the hands of the public, 80% of shares belong to the founders of the business.
- The market price of shares is fifty times higher than the nominal value. The dividends have been steadily increasing from year to year.
- The owners of the business refuse the idea of merging or friendly takeover.
You work for a UK-based company Flacks, a mid-sized business producing fashion accessories for women. The business has currently problems with paying off debts to a large commercial bank, FNT Bank. A loan officer of the bank, Ms Starwell, has approached you with the request to explain the reason for the delay in the installment payments.
Using the information given below, write a letter to Ms Starwell of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style.
The results of the performance last year were not impressive. The sales revenue was not very high, the net income appeared to be much lower than predicted.
- There was as a lot of refund because of low quality of the production sold.
- Administrative expenses have doubled in comparison with the previous year largely due to the increased remuneration of top executives hired a year ago.
- There were a great many unexpected expenses on the maintenance of the obsolete equipment — conveyer belt in particular, which needs replacing.
- You want to see Ms Starwell in person, ask about the time of meeting suitable for her.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients, Red Bull, a newly developed medium-sized hotel group, has quite recently applied to the VictoryBank for a large 3 year maturity loan to finance the construction of a new building. The managers of the VictoryBank Credit Department are concerned about the risks this might entail. Head of the Credit Department, Mr Swenson, has approached you with the request to put him in the picture how your client plans to achieve the aim.
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to Mr Swenson on behalf of your client, Red Bull.
- They have their own credit risk department whose performance has been successful for the last 5 years.
- Point out that a new hotel building meets the needs of the local government.
- List types of risks that might arise.
- Explain the ways of reducing risks.
- Analyse the ability of your client to generate capital
You are an accountant of the company Home Products. The Board of Directors want to acquire the business of your customers which has had financial problems for 2 years. CFO Mr Fairwell has asked you to investigate how the business is currently developing.
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to MrFairwell explaining the results of your research:
- Although the business is actually making losses, they are less than in the previous period.
- Sales have increased, as well as the cost of sales and selling expenses, which is quite logic.
- There is a positive tendency — a decrease in administrative expenses, no loss in operating profit.
- The business has some debts: mortgage (10 year maturity), short term bank loans, notes payable, deferred tax liability.
- Conclusion — the business seems to be performing quite well into the future.
You are CFO of a mid-sized car-producing company. After the analysis of the cash flow and income statements for the last month CEO of your company, MrGreenmark, has contacted you with the request to give explanation on managing company funds ineffectively.
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to MrGreenmark.
- A large amount of funds was spent on buying new software.
The company incurred losses because one of the main customers went bankrupt, you had to write off a sizable amount of debt.
- You had to buy a new purification system to satisfy the demands of stakeholders.
- Last month you were involved in a charity marathon and transferred money to 3 charity organizations to improve the image of the company.
- Corporate social responsibility requires investing money in social projects.
You are the owner of a small transportation company. You want to introduce changes in the accounting system — move from the straight-line method of depreciation to accelerated one with the view of investing more in the business. You have received a letter from the accountant of an accounting firm Mr Quest who regularly helps you check the financial statements. The letter contained some fundamentals on the accelerated method of depreciation.
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to Mr Quest.
- Explain the reasons for moving to a new system of depreciation — you want to expand your firm in the near future.
- The lifespan of vehicles is 10 years. You have 8 vehicles which you have recently bought.
- Give a schedule of charges on the vehicles in the nearest two years.
- Statistics show you might benefit a lot – compute EBIT you had last year using both of the systems.
- Make an appointment with Mr Quest to discuss technical details of using accelerated depreciation.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients, mid-sized company Northern Rock, wants to buy the overseas department of a large company in the service sector. CFO of Northern Rock Mr Craft approached you with a request to analyse the current situation on the market, the financial situation of the overseas branch and risks the purchase might cause.
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to CFO Mr Craft on behalf of your client, mid-sized company Northern Rock.
- Consider key indicators that demonstrate the performance of the business – efficiency, liquidity, solvency.
- Analyse potential for future growth of the branch – gross profit margin, ROA, ROE.
- Describe the main risk for your client the deal might involve – debt-toequity ratio.
- Point out risks connected with exchange rates.
- Give your recommendations.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients, a large exporting company that has recently found a new market in a developing country, wants to find a reliable insurance company that could cover all the costs that may arise. You have been asked to analyse the ways for the company to achieve its goals while keeping its costs under control.
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to CEO, Mr Duncan. Explain:
- the need for applying to an external insurance company with highlyqualified, experienced staff,
types of insurance that might be considered by an exporting business,
- role of accountants in insurance claims,
- compare possible losses that might occur if the goods are not insured and the cost of insurance services,
- other services the business might get from the insurance company.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients, a car-producing company Original, wants to diversify its business and buy the building with well-developed spa business which has recently been offered for sale. You have been asked to consider the position of the target business on the market and its financial performance.
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to CEO, Mr Taylor.
- Give a brief summary of key indicators of the spa’s financial position.
- Outline the risks associated with the purchase of a new type of business.
- Give profit forecast.
- Comment on further steps to be taken by your client.
- Give your recommendations.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients, a mid-sized successful firm, wants to start a new business which will render dental medical services. They approached you with a request to give recommendations on setting up a new business .
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to the head of the business Ms Cornwell.
- Recommend setting up a limited liability partnership.
- Analyse advantages of LLP.
- List possible sources of raising funds in addition to the start-up capital — family, friends, banks, angel investors, etc.
- Give recommendations on managing the business.
- Consider the ways of distributing shares and profit.
You work for a firm of accountants. One of your clients is a successful private retail company Hope. A supermarket chain offers your client a takeover bid. Hope CEO Mr Double has asked you to perform investigative due diligence of the supermarket chain.
Using the information given below, write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style to Mr Double.
- Give a brief analysis of the financial position on the market and financial performance of the potential buyer for the last two years.
- Highlight financial implications a successful bid might have for the private company.
- Bring to light the information on the character, integrity and reputation of the company key individuals.
- Focus on corporate culture of the possible business partner.
- Give your recommendations.
To be able to write business letters on finance related topics successfully you need to know some formulaic language. Language Bank will help you master the required lexis.
Part 1.Standard phrases for a) opening letters
The opening sentence of the first paragraph is important as it sets the tone and the style of the letter and creates the first impression. Generally, you would thank your correspondent for their letter, state the subject of the letter, and set out its purpose. Here are some examples of opening paragraphs:
- Thank you for your letter of 15 January regarding…
- Many thanks for your quick reply…
- We are sorry for the delay with the answer concerning …
- We thank you for your inquiry of the 10th of July…
- I’m writing concerning our client’s application for the loan….
- In reply/response to your letter of 10 August, I regret that we cannot offer you any information concerning the company you asked about…
- With reference to our letter of 10 August, we inform you …
- Further to our letter of 16 July we are pleased to tell you that the credit for
$18 000 which you requested has been approved…
- I would like to enquire about one of our mutual business associates… b) stating the reason for writing I am writing to inform you… c) continuing a letter.
- We acknowledge the receipt of…
- In conformity with your instruction we …
- We have been informed that…
- We regret to inform you…
- We are forced to inform you…
- Due to the fact that… .
- We wish to draw your attention to the following… We draw your attention to the fact…
- We confirm that… .
- We have learnt with regret about…
- We regret to hear of…
- We regret to hear about…
- We are surprised to learn that…
- Will you please notice that…
- Kindly note that…
- Please note that…
- Please take notice that…
- Please inform us about…
d) closing a letter
At the end of the letter you should thank your correspondent for writing. If appropriate, encourage further enquiries or correspondence, mentioning that you look forward to hearing from him/ her soon. You may want to restate briefly, one or two most important points you made in the main part of your letter or refer to future contact. Here are some examples of final paragraphs:
- Once again thank you for writing to us. Please contact us if you would like any further information. I look forward to hearing from you soon.
- Should you have any further questions, do not hesitate to contact us.
- We are confident that you have made the right choice. If there is any advice or further information you need, we would be happy to supply it, and look forward to receiving your reply.
- I hope I have covered all the questions you asked. I would be most grateful if you could send me further details concerning the matter. I hope to hear fom you in the near future.
e) writing about enclosure or attachment
- We have attached a document providing a complete account of the audit which may be of interest to you.
- Please find the documents enclosed.
- We have eclosed detailed information on…
N.B. Difference between ‘enclosure’ and ‘attachment’.
‘Enclosed’ means, inside an evelope, a body of text; e.g., Please find enclosed ..
‘Attached’ means, separate, joined/added to, outside the envelope, stapled or paperclipped to the main page; e.g., Please find attached …
Part 2. How to make pieces of writing sound polite.
The language of a letter should not be very simple, otherwise it might become too straightforward or even rude. Notice the stylistic devices that are used to make it more polite:
- complex sentences joined by conjunctions, participial complexes, gerundial and infinitive structures rather than short sentences (the balance which has been outstanding…, I enclose a catalogue giving detailed information, including impressive results we have achieved…)
- modal verbs and words that express modality (This should have been cleared…, we are confident we should be able to deliver the consignment…)
- the use of passive forms and indirect language (for the account to be settled…, I refer to the letter in which you were asked to clear the balance…)
- full forms rather than abbreviations (I shall have to consider…)
Part 3. How to emphasize that something is important.
It should be noted that…
It is essential/vital that…
We would like to stress that…
It is worth bearing in mind that…
…..plays a crucial role in the successful performance of the company.
We have to emphasize the need for …
The report pointed up the necessity of streamlining …. Our report highlights the fact that..
Part 4. How to write about advantages and disadvantages.
The great advantage of outsourcing is that it cuts down production costs.
One of the big advantages of using a new method is that …
Despite a few problems with the production site, advantages clearly outweigh disadvantages.
One of the good points about … is that it …
The best (great, good) thing about joining the WTO is …
The main (major, serious) disadvantage is …
The major (main, only) drawback of this method is …
The downside of running your own business is that you are responsible if anything goes wrong.
For all bad points, and there are many, it is still the best software of its kind available.
Part 5. How to express certainty and uncertainty.
It now seems certain that …
We are sure that …
We became convinced that/of…
We have no doubt that …
Without a doubt (certainly, undoubtedly)…
There is no doubt that (there is no denying, there is no disputing the fact that) …
It is difficult to be absolutely sure about …
It is uncertain that …/ it is uncertain whether…
It is by no means certain that…
Part 6. How to give recommendations.
It would be advisable to…
We strongly recommend (suggest) that… should + bare infinitive We would recommend (suggest) + gerund
We will study the matter thoroughly and make recommendations.
It is recommended that …
Part 7. How to link sentences in a letter and report.
Focusing and linking: with reference to; regarding; as far as … is concerned; as for;
Contradicting: on the contrary;
Balancing contrasting points: on the other hand; while; whereas;
Emphasizing a contrast:however; nevertheless; still; in spite of all this;
Similarity: similarly; in the same way;
Dismissal of previous subject: anyway; anyhow; at any rate; at least;
Change of the subject:by the way; incidentally;
Structuring (listing): first(ly); first of all; second(ly); third(ly); lastly; finally; to begin (start) with; in the first/ second/ third place; for one thing; for another thing;
Adding: moreover (very formal); furthermore (formal); in addition; as well as that; on top of that (informal); another thing is; what is more; besides; in any case;
Generalizing: on the whole; in general; in all/most/many/some cases; broadly speaking; by and large; to a great extent; to some extent; apart from; except for; Giving results: the result is; the consequence is; so; hence; thus; resulting from; accordingly; therefore; because of this; due to;
Giving examples: for instance; for example; in particular; e.g.;
Logical sequence: therefore (formal); as a result (formal); consequently
(formal); so; then;
Referring to other person’s expectations: actually; in fact; as a matter of fact; to tell the truth;
Summing up: in conclusion; to sum up; briefly; in short;
- Absolute Financial English. Julie Pratten — . Delta Publishing, 2009
- Eisen Peter. J. — Barron’s, 2006
- Business Benchmark. Advanced. G.Brook-Hart. — Cambridge
University Press, 2012
- Business Vocabulary in Use. Advanced. B. Mascull. — Cambridge
University Press, 2011
- Cambridge Financial English. On-line course. — Cambridge
University Press, 2009.
- English for the Financial Sector. I.Mackenzie. — Cambridge
University Press, 2008
- English for Business Studies. I.Mackenzie, Third Edition. — Cambridge University Press, 2010.
- Ehsan Nikbakht, A.A. Groppeli. Barron’s, 2012.
- Market Leader. Advanced, New. Dubicka, M, O’Keeffe-.
- Past Papers. Cambridge. BEC Higher (1-5). — Cambridge University Press, 2012.
- Past Papers. Cambridge. ICFE. — Cambridge University Press, 2006, 2007, 2008
- Professional English in Use. Finance. I.Mackenzie. — Cambridge University Press, 2013
2. Part 1
3. Part 2
4. Part 3
5. Writing Guide